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Feature of Read only memory (ROM):

ROM is a small part of a computer which means read-only memory and it provides space for the programs for booting and the startup of PC. Read only memory, shortly ROM enables an electronic device to regulate their work motion which is inserted in the integrated circuit. ROM is primarily used in various electro-mechanical devices and is less used in computer IC. ROM is a device which is mainly used for storage purposes. The data stored in ROM is not readily modifiable and the data is used to run a specific hardware with certain software, which in terms is said firmware.

The journey of first ever programmable ROM was started in 1956. In 1971, EPROM was invented which enables various erase options. With the advancement of time, electronically programmable ROM was modified and 80s was the time when ROM became more popular and user friendly. Current users are completely astonished with ROM’s flash memory and its features.

The data stored in ROM is non volatile, which means the data is stored without any power supply. Any device needs special application to change the data in ROM.

ROM is classified into five main classes:

Classical read-only memory (ROM): Classic mask programmed ROM are the oldest model of ROM. The data and program is stored permanently, which can’t be changed after manufacturing.

Programmable read-only memory (PROM): PROM is also a one tome programmable ROM which is programmed with the aid of special devices. Consequently this ROM creates internal links within the IC which is inerasable.

Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM): This is a type of ROM which enables a device to erase the data in ROM. When the ROM is exposed to ultra-violet (UV) ray for more than 10 minutes, the stored data is deleted and it enables to input new programs. This erasing cycle can be done 1000 times with an EPROM.

Electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM): EEPROM is very much similar to EPROM. The main difference is that the data is erased electrically, where with EPROM UV ray is used.

Flash memory: Flash memory is the modified version of EEPROM. It is faster than EEPROM and rewriting and deleting is easy with it. Recently NAND flash has made this easier and flash memory is mostly used in electronic devices now a day.

Diode is a device which flow the current in a single direction. The threshold value is the criteria of minimum voltage which is required to find a diode in an integrated circuit. This is termed as forward break over. When ROM sends a signal of over 0.6 Volts, if the certain diode prevail in the circuit, then it response with a binary signal ‘1’. If it doesn’t exist it gives a signal ‘0’. The ROM is effective just after the whole program is properly done and executable.

ROM has its main uses in the electronic devices. It makes the primary code use easy with its versatile distinction.

Work function of BIOS

BIOS is the primary initiator of the computer devices and software which starts all the devices to work according to their menu. Basic input/output system (BIOS) is a boot firmware or primary system device or code of computer which helps to run and test all other applications and devices. BIOS is expressed as the initiating media which helps to coordinate all other activities of computer after it is powered on. After computer is powered on, the BIOS identify and run the hardware like floppy drive, hard disk, graphics card etc. In the same way BIOS also make the software files executable after computer starts. The BIOS works in a sequence that is stored in the ROM of computer.

BIOS is attached to motherboard of the PC and the primary work function of BIOS varies according to general or professional use of users. According to its usage in different manners, the different BIOS setup is fixed in different spaces. After the start of PC, the post work of BIOS includes self test works like virus identification, disability or troubleshooting of hardware, power system, over clocking system etc. Then BIOS hands over its duty to operating system to run the PC according to its configuration. But in case of transferring OS data, BIOS also helps from the backend. BIOS looks over the hardware whether it face compatibility problems. In fact BIOS works as an interpreter between software and hardware applications.

The communication job of BIOS is not done in a single stage as the overall service of BIOS is performed in three stages. In first stage, after primary investigation, BIOS transfer responsibility to BIOS. In the second stage, in case of any problem or difficulty OS send a signal to BIOS and in third stage BIOS takes step accordingly. The whole process is done within a very short period, so that users can’t identify the steps manually.

BIOS failure:

After switching on the PC, BIOS activates and then operating system and other applications. If PC restarts continuously then it is termed as BIOS failure. Any message can come in black screen which will dictate what to do. BIOS failure can occur due to various reasons:

1. Virus attack
2. Failure of any hardware device
3. Over clocking

To get rid from these types of problems one must change or replace BIOS chip.

Dual BIOS:

Dual BIOS is a system where two physical BIOS-ROM are attached to the motherboard together, one of which is principal BIOS and other is auxiliary or supporting BIOS. Principal BIOS helps in booting of PC and supporting BIOS works as default BIOS which helps to run the computer. The main aim of duel BIOS is to enable the PC work if anytime primary BIOS fails.

For a PC BIOS is a must to run it without any interruption. Dual BIOS can help more in future computing for better service.

Removable storage: Real Storage box

Removable storage devices are used in several PCs for transporting and storing information. There are various types of storage devices that include hard disks, CD drives, compact disks and portable USB drives. The storage limit of removable devices is increasing exponentially with the progression of technology. Storage devices are also formulated in a multipurpose manner, sometimes like MP3 players, iPods or USB devices.

Removable storage devices were used for recording purpose and small data transfer. The primary storage device was based on magnetic tapes where audio and video files are stored in a tape and marketed as audio and video cassettes. These devices offer flexibility regarding storage limits and service types. In early 90s, floppy drives became very popular for storing and transferring data. But in recent times, CDs and DVDs are even more popular medium of exchanging and storing data. Hard disk is the most popular and efficient device of data storage, but it’s not popular and useful for transferring data. Hard discs are replaced by USB flash drives as they play an important role in fast and efficient transferring of data. It is user friendly for its small size and its high storage capacity ranges from 256 MB to 20 GB.

Removable storage devices are divided into three types:

• Magnetic storage
• Optical storage
• Solid-state storage

Magnetic storage is the most popular and widely used media for data storage. Magnetic storage is done with the help of magnetized materials. Different intensity of magnetization is induced in various devices according to their use and memory limit. The data is stored in a form of non-volatile memory. Among magnetic storage devices, hard disk is the most pronounced and mostly used for storing data. Along with hard disk, floppy disk and recording tape are also the features of magnetic storage, which have slightly different technical specifications. But hard disk is more capable of storing huge data of different types, both audio and video including images and documents. With the advancement of science and technology these analog recording devices became digital with the use of computer hard disk and other cutting edge video and audio storage devices.

Optical storage is a referred as the device which uses optical signals to read data. The data is stored by creating round patterns marks in a device which can be interpreted correctly when light is projected. CD-ROM and DVD-ROM is practical example of optical storage devices.

Lastly, the latest used technology is solid state drive (SSD) which derives from solid state physics that uses solid state memory to store data. Solid sate drive is portable and has a less operation time than others with more flexibility and durability.

Use of Removable storage is compulsory in this technological world as various personalized works are impossible without storage devices. Scientists are looking forward to invent faster and high memory storage devices.

TOSHIBA LAUNCHES TMPM380, A 32-BIT MCU

Toshiba America Electronic Components, Inc. (TAEC), is a leader that joins forces with technology companies to create breakthrough designs. Its latest breakthrough innovation is a new 32-bit microcontroller (MCU), the TMPM380. An MCU is s a single chip that contains a processor, RAM, ROM, clock and I/O control unit. Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices.

Performance

The TMPM380 MCU is powered by a 40 Mega hertz ARM® Cortex™-M3 processor core and is superior in performance than the other typically used 8 bit and 16 bit MCUs in industrial or appliance applications. Even then, when it comes to pricing it compares well with the lesser performing alternatives. TMPM380 MCU is exclusively designed to digitally control the high-current circuits generally found in industrial or appliance applications.

Features

The new TMPM380 delivers improved operating individuality, including enhanced energy efficiency and more defined control. On the basis of the superior performance offered by the TMPM380; adding new features to an application has become all the more plausible. For example, confirmation via voice of user commands and settings can be provided by the appliance, in which speech synthesis can now be added. The TMPM380 MCU offers a 5V operation, which delivers better immunity to system noise than a comparable 3V MCU along with easier interfacing with other 5V components.

Toshiba’s TMPM380 MCU uses a devoted pulse-width modulation (PWM) circuit, which can create three-phase control for motor circuits or a 16-bit programmable pulse generator (PPG) control for circuits employing power semiconductors such as IGBTs ( insulated gate bipolar transistors) or FETs (field-effect transistors). The MCU has an on-board 12-bit analog/digital converter that can synchronize with the PWM unit to read back system state at critical times.

“With the TMPM380 MCU, we are bringing a higher level of digital processing to industrial and appliance applications at a lower price point,” said Andrew Burt, vice president of the Imaging and Communications Marketing Group in the ASSP Business unit at TAEC. “By implementing the TMPM380 MCU in their designs, engineers will be able to develop cookers, pumps, compressors, motors or any system controlled by inverters or discrete power devices with better operating characteristics or additional features without increasing system cost.”

Safety and Fault Tolerance Features

The TMPM380 MCU also has several safety and fault acceptance features. This includes software support of the IED 60730B safety standard and oscillator frequency and low voltage detectors. An added benefit of the TMPM380 is that it uses zero-wait state FLASH and SRAM that ensures latency time does not vary in volatile ways.  As a result, designers can develop applications that require conclusive timing. This ability is of paramount importance in applications requiring analog processing, where accurate control loop timing is decisive.

In addition, the MCU’s Cortex-M3 core offers fast interrupt response, especially significant in applications where real-time operating systems need to quickly adjust to varying inputs, such as with appliances.

Pricing and Accessibility

Engineering samples of the TMPM380 MCU are available now. Mass production is planned to begin in Q3 2010. The TMPM380 family pricing starts with the TMPM382FSFG (64K Flash / 8K SRAM) at $1.90 per unit in 10,000 unit quantities.

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